There are several biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors that are present in the arctic tundra, including moss, polar bears, frozen soil and wind. Biotic factors also include plants and animals such as grass, lichen, caribou, fish, and various bird species. Other abiotic factors include low temperatures, short growth seasons, limited drainage and low light.
Since the soil is frozen for most of the year, trees do not grow on the arctic tundra. Much of the land is bare and rocky, supporting only low plants and grasses. Overall, the arctic tundra has low biodiversity, supporting only about 1,700 species of plants and 48 species of animals, mostly with low populations.