Examples of catabolism include the citric acid cycle, breaking down muscle protein for gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. Examples of anabolism include muscle mass increases and the mineralization and growth of bone.
Metabolic Reactions in Cells In living organisms, the set of chemical reactions that maintain life are referred to as metabolism. This involved metabolic pathways. The processes involved make it possible for an organism to reproduce and grow, respond to environmental changes and maintain their structures.
In a cell, two metabolic reactions can happen and these are catabolism and anabolism. Before looking at examples of anabolism and catabolism, one should first examine the basics of each. These are the two metabolic actions that might happen in a cell.
Metabolic Pathways A metabolic pathway is a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. They start with a flux-generating step and end when a product is removed. These reactions are generally organized into cycles or chains. When organized in a chain, glycolysis, which is part of cell respiration, is an example. Another is the coagulation cascade involved in blood clotting. When organized in a cycle, the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis is an example. The Krebs cycle of cell respiration is another.
Chemical Reactions Temperature plays a major role in chemical reactions. In most animals, including humans, the body temperature is mostly constant, resulting in metabolic reactions being relatively stable.
In the process of metabolism, metabolites are the chemicals associated with reactions. In the reacting molecules, the chemical bonds are broke. This causes an intake of energy. To make the products, new chemical bonds form. This puts out energy. Therefore, energy is either released or taken in as a result of a chemical reaction. The strength of the bonds formed and those that are broken determine which action happens.
Energy is put out into its surroundings during an exergonic reaction. This means that compared to the bonds being broken, those being formed are stronger. From the surroundings, energy is absorbed during an endergonic reaction. This means that compared to the bonds that are breaking, the bonds former are weaker.
Anabolism Anabolic reactions are endergonic, so they use up energy. During this kind of reaction, the small molecules come together to create molecules that are larger. For example, small molecules of sugar join forces to create disaccharides.
Bone mineralization is a common example of anabolism. During this process, mineral crystals are deposited onto the organic extracellular matrix in an organized manner.
Bone forms from osteoclasts, a type of cell. Osteoblasts, another type of cell, mineralizes the bone. Calcium phosphate crystals are produced by the osteoblasts. These make the bones hard after being incorporated into them.
Catabolism Catabolic reactions are exergonic, so they give out energy. In this reaction, the larger molecules are broken down to become multiple smaller ones. For example, hydrogen peroxide breaks down into oxygen and water.
Glycolysis is an example of catabolism. Cellular metabolism needs energy. This energy comes from breaking down glucose, and glycolysis is the first step in this. This process is a series of reactions that take glucose and extract energy from it. This is done by splitting the glucose into two pyruvates.