One example of an ionic bond is table salt, which is the compound sodium chloride. Some other examples of ionic bonds include iron oxide (rust), calcium chloride (rock salt), sodium fluoride (toothpaste fluoride) and sodium hydroxide (lye).
An ionic bond forms when two oppositely charged ions (one negative and one positive), such as those of a metal and a non-metal, become attracted to one another and end up causing a transfer of electrons. The electrons are usually transferred from metals to non-metals, making the metal that lost the electrons positively charged and the non-metal that gained them negatively charged. Another name for positively-charged ions is "cations," and another name for negatively-charged ions is "anions."