One example of cell specialization is the role of the white blood cell in immune function. Cell specialization occurs when a cell contains certain organelles or structures that allow it to perform a specific set of functions in an organism.
Other types of cells that have specialized functions include nerve cells and fat cells. The function of nerve cells is to transport information to and from the brain and spinal cord in relation to sensory and other experiences related to the central nervous system. Nerve cells may also be referred to as neurons. Fat cells assist in cushioning the body and serve as a reservoir for energy.
When several specialized cells are grouped together for a specific function, they make up tissues. Those tissues are further synthesized to form organs. Specialized cells have unique structures to assist them in their functions. However, all cells have some organelles that are common to the function of a living cell.
Specialized cells provide an advantage to the organism. They allow a division of labor of activities within the body. Because some cells are able to perform some functions, there is an increased efficiency in metabolism and other activities necessary for the organism to survive.