Q:

How is energy released from ATP?

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Quick Answer

Energy is released from ATP by the breaking of the phosphate bond, states the University of Illinois at Chicago. Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, consists of a sugar called ribose, the molecule adenine and three phosphate groups. During the hydrolysis of ATP, the last phosphate group is transferred to another molecule, thus breaking the phosphate bond. This reaction causes energy to be released to power other activities within the cell.

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How is energy released from ATP?
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Full Answer

ATP is made by breaking down glucose, as stated by Dr. Dawn Tamarkin at Springfield Technical Community College. By breaking down the bonds in glucose in the presence of oxygen, energy is produced in order to add a phosphate group to ADP to form ATP. In this way, 38 ATPs are formed. This process is called cellular respiration.

The energy of the ATP molecule lies in the bonds between the phosphate groups, or pyrophosphate bonds, states Dr. Mike Farabee of Estrella Mountain Community College. The bond between the second phosphate and last phosphate groups yields the most energy, about seven kilocalories per mole. When this bond is broken, adenosine diphosphate, or ADP, is formed.

Because ATP is constantly being used, it needs to be replenished. A single muscle cell, probably one of the greatest users of ATP, uses and replenishes 10,000,000 ATP molecules per second, according to the University of Illinois at Chicago.

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Related Questions

  • Q:

    What is ATP vs. ADP?

    A:

    ATP contains three phosphate groups, whereas ADP contains two. ATP stands for "adenosine triphosphate," and ADP stands for "adenosine diphosphate." They both contain the nitrogenous base adenine, the five-carbon sugar ribose and several phosphate groups.

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  • Q:

    Why is ATP important in cells?

    A:

    Adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, is a molecule that stores all the energy required for cells to function. It is present in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm of every cell. All of the energy needed to perform physiological operations is directly obtained from ATP.

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  • Q:

    When can ATP convert to ADP?

    A:

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is converted to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the cells of plants and animals when energy is required to power processes in the cell. ATPase, an enzyme, cleaves one of the phosphate bonds on ATP (three phosphates), converting it to ADP (two phosphates) and releasing energy.

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  • Q:

    What is the process that uses high-energy electrons to convert ADP to ATP?

    A:

    The process that uses high energy electrons to convert ADP to ATP is known as oxidative phosphorylation. ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is the molecule that provides the energy cells need to function.

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