An elevated level of thyroglobulin antibodies indicates that a thyroid-related autoimmune condition is present, reports KidsHealth. Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks healthy tissues and cells, so when a thyroid-related one occurs, the immune system attacks thyroglobulin, in turn producing antibodies, explains Healthline.
Thyroglobulin is one of the proteins that is produced by the thyroid gland, which assists in producing hormones. If an autoimmune disorder is present, it can cause disruptions in how this protein is produced, explains Healthline.
A physician primarily uses a thyroglobulin antibodies test to assist in diagnosing autoimmune conditions involving the thyroid gland, reports KidsHealth. It is used to check the blood levels of antibodies that the body has produced against thyroglobulin. A healthy immune system would not produce significant levels of the antibodies, because thyroglobulin is not "foreign" to the body. Thus, when levels of the antibodies are elevated, it indicates a disruption in the production of thyroglobulin, which in turn indicates a thyroid-related autoimmune condition.
A doctor may order the test if the individual is showing symptoms of a thyroid disorder, reports Healthline. Such symptoms may include fatigue, unexplained weight gain, dry skin and constipation. It may also be necessary to order the test if the individual develops a condition known as goiter, or an autoimmune condition such as Graves disease or Hashimoto thyroiditis.