The electron configuration for gallium is 1s22s22p6<3s23p63d104s24p1, according to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Office of Science Education. Gallium is a metallic element with an atomic weight of 69.723 amu.
A neutral atom of gallium has 31 electrons. The negative charge of each electron cancels out the positive charges of the 31 protons, giving a neutral gallium atom a net charge of zero.
Gallium's electron configuration shows how these 31 electrons are arranged. One atom of gallium has two electrons in the first energy level, eight in the second energy level, 18 in the third energy level and three in the fourth energy level.
The 4s2 and 4p1 parts of the configuration show how many valence electrons are in a gallium atom. The outer shell has a total of three electrons -- two in the s orbital and one in the p orbital. This means the atom has three valence electrons.
Gallium is found in thermometers that are used to measure high temperatures. The element is also used to create metal alloys and produce transistors. Gallium is in group 13 and period four of the Periodic Table of the Elements. Groups are the vertical columns of the table, while periods are the horizontal rows. At room temperature, gallium is a solid.