DNA isolation is the process by which scientists are able to separate the DNA that is located within the cell from the proteins and other substances that are in the cell. DNA isolation allows scientists to look at the DNA that is contained within the cell in an environment that is not obstructed by the other structures of the cell.
It is impossible for DNA to be studied when it is in the cell because it is surrounded by plasma, the nucleus and thick cell membranes. It must first be extracted before scientists can recover any information from it. This extraction process is one that is able to be done in nearly every type of cell and can help scientists have a better understanding for the reasons why cells do their specific functions. DNA is one of the most hardy structures within the cell and can be safely removed from cells without the risk of damage to the genes.
One of the most common extraction methods for DNA is through the use of the cells in the blood. Small blood samples are taken, the cells are located, and the DNA that is within the cells is isolated to have a better understanding of the blood.