Where Does DNA Come From and How Is It Formed?

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is genetic material that exists in nearly all living organisms, including humans. Any organism with nucleus-based cells has DNA. It is the building blocks forming an organism, and the DNA combination an organism is born with remains the same.

There are four types of DNA: mtDNA, rDNA, nDNA, and recombinant DNA. DNA is a double helix in which genes result from base pair combinations. It has the ability to replicate itself. Human DNA has 3 billion base pairs formulated using four chemical bases: adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T). It is kept in a cell called a chromosome. The chromosome is what undergoes a splitting process to recombine and form new cells. Offspring of an organism contains DNA from both parents.

nDNA or nuclear DNA, forms in the nucleus of an organism’s cell. The cell also contains a cell membrane called the mitochondria. A small amount of DNA referred to as mtDNA is found in the mitochondria rather than the nucleus. rDNA or ribosomal DNA helps create proteins the body uses to generate cells. rDNA becomes mRNA, which is the protein formation. rDNA can also mean recombinant DNA. This DNA is designed solely in laboratories for cloning or creating genetic sequences that would not exist otherwise.