Just as blueprints direct the building of a house, DNA molecules contain the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of a living organism. The DNA of eukaryotic organisms such as plants and animals is organized into linear chromosomes and stored within the nucleus of every cell.
DNA has a double helix structure, which appears like a twisted ladder. The sides of the DNA ladder are composed of alternating deoxyribose sugar molecules and phosphate groups. The rungs of the ladder are nucleotide base pairs, which are the genetic information of the DNA. Each nucleotide can be adenine, thymine, cytosine or guanine. Genetic information is read in sequence of three bases called triplets. Each triplet codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis. As described by NobelPrize.org, when proteins are needed, the corresponding genes are transcribed from DNA into an RNA molecule. RNA is transported out of the cell's nucleus where proteins are built based upon translation of the RNA code. Proteins are an essential part of organisms and participate in every process within a cell.