Antonie van Leeuwenhoek of the Netherlands discovered the vacuole in 1676. Van Leeuwenhoek is referred to as the father of microbiology because he was the first scientist to study bacteria under a microscope. He made many additional important discoveries in microbiology and made improvements to microscopes.
Vacuoles are tiny organisms present in all cells. They consist of chambers filled with fluids or solids. Their structure changes depending on the requirements of the cell. They are more prominent in cells of plants than in animals and bacteria. Purposes of the vacuole include regulating waste, maintaining pH balance and assisting plants with supporting their leaves and other structures.