The tilt in the planet's axis is the main factor that causes weather to change, according to NASA. Earth's distance from the sun, its orbit and the atmosphere all contribute to weather shifts.
NASA notes that when the North Pole is tilted toward the sun, it is called the Summer Solstice. When the South Pole tilts toward the sun, it is called the Winter Solstice. Earth's rotational tilt causes weather and seasonal patterns that are divided between the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere. The weather patterns are more pronounced when any planet is closer to the sun.
Weather changes are caused by differences in air pressure in various places. The weather also varies depending on the sun's angles. For example, places that are farther away from the tropics have cooler temperatures because the angle of the sun is lower. This indirect sunlight causes cooling. Weather is also affected by compression heating, which causes higher altitudes to be cooler than lower altitudes.
Different surfaces also cause weather changes. Ice sheets, oceans and forests all affect the weather in terms of reflectivity or moisture levels. The ice sheets of Greenland reflect the sun's rays, according to Climate.gov, but the melting of these ice sheets causes the northern portion of Earth to absorb more heat.