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# What are the different kinds of forces in physics?

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Modern physics recognizes four fundamental types of interaction between particles: the strong force, the weak force, electromagnetism and gravity. Each force acts in a distinct way over distance, and all operate at different energy values.

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The strong force is a residual effect of the color force carried by particles called gluons. Protons are made from smaller particles called quarks, which have a quality known as color. Quarks with different colors are held together by gluons, with the side effect that protons adhere to each other despite their mutually-repulsive positive charges.

The strong force is thus strong enough to overcome electromagnetic repulsion over distances equivalent to the diameter of an atomic nucleus. The weak force is about 10^-16 the strength of the strong force and works to change one type of quark into another. It governs the emission of radiation from a decaying atom, and it is responsible for the buildup of heavy atomic nuclei. The weak force is carried by a type of particle called a boson and works over ranges of 0.1 percent of the diameter of a single proton.

Electromagnetism is familiar to most people, if only because it works over potentially infinite range and is carried by photons. Gravity is, by far, the weakest force, but it also works over infinite distance and is always attractive, so its effects compound with mass and proximity. Gravity is the major force shaping large systems, such as galaxies.

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## Related Questions

• A:

In physics, concurrent forces are defined as forces that pass through a common point. In other words, a concurrent force system is a set of two or more forces whose lines of action intersect at a point at the same time. Similarly, non-concurrent forces are forces whose lines of action never intersect with each other, meaning that they don't have a common passing point.

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• A:

In physics, equilibrium refers to the state of any object when all forces acting upon it result in zero change of motion for the object. Static equilibrium indicates that the object in question is motionless. Dynamic equilibrium indicates that the object is moving, and will continue to do so unchanged.

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The law of inertia is a fundamental physics principle used to describe how an object behaves in motion or at rest, particularly when forces are applied to it. The object can be anything that has mass.