What Are the Different Branches of Science?

Branches of science break down into three main categories: formal or hard sciences, the natural sciences and humanistic sciences. Formal sciences include the study of abstract principles and theories and draw heavily on mathematics. Natural sciences involve the study of life and living organisms, covering the fields of biological and physical sciences while humanistic sciences include behavioral and social sciences.

The branch of formal sciences uses logistics and many disciplines of math, such as algebra and geometry. This branch of science studies older, established mathematical disciplines and covers technology, too, such as computer sciences. The natural science branch includes many sub-branches dealing with the natural world. This branch breaks down into biology and physical sciences. Physical sciences include astronomy, physics, geology and chemistry. Biology covers specialty fields like zoology, genetics and botany. Scientists identifying as biologists examine the life, structure and function of living organisms and study their interactions with each other. Some scientists focus their research on small microorganisms such as bacteria, while others study birds, mammals, amphibians and other wildlife. Botanists study plants on land and at sea. Some branches under the umbrella term “biology” overlap, such as biochemistry. This hybrid discipline features a study of the basic chemical structure of life forms on Earth.