In chemistry, the term "hydrate" refers to a substance that contains water, while an anhydrous substance contains no water. Hydrates and anhydrates differ greatly in their reactions to water and their common uses.Know More
In organic chemistry, a hydrate is formed by the addition of hydrogen to another molecule to form a compound. Examples of organic hydrates are chloral hydrate, created from the reaction of hydrogen with chloral, and ethanol, formed when hydrogen is added to ethylene. In inorganic chemistry, the hydrate compound is formed when the compound contains water of crystallization. This happens when the hydrogen molecules have crystallized within the metal complex of the original molecule, or are bound to its metal center without changing the structure of the molecule.
By contrast, an anydrate or anhydrous material does not contain any water molecules. The water is usually removed by suction or by heating the substance to a high temperature. Anhydrous materials are typically used as drying agents because they absorb water from their surroundings. One example is a silica gel packet often included inside clothing pockets or other consumer goods to keep the surrounding area dry and mold-free. Many common anhydrates are quite dangerous to handle. Anhydrous ammonia, for example, is a pungent gas used as a fertilizer. The pungent fumes from this gas can suffocate a human and are extremely flammable. If ingested, it can cause quick dehydration.Learn more about Chemistry
There is a direct relationship between absorbance and concentration is the higher the absorbance of a substance, the more concentrated its solution will be in water or another medium. In chemistry, this is a principle known as the Beer-Lambert Law.Full Answer >
In chemistry, pK is the logarithmic value of the dissociation constant, Ka, of a hydrogen atom present on a molecule. A molecule has a distinct pK for each hydrogen atom that can be deprotonated. The acidity of a specific hydrogen atom in a molecule is represented by the pK value.Full Answer >
Some articles about major breakthroughs in chemistry include "Five Chemistry Breakthroughs That Shaped Our Modern World," by Mark Lorch, available online at DiscoverMagazine.com; "Ten Greatest Discoveries in Chemistry," available online at FamousChemists.com; and "Five Biggest Chemistry Breakthroughs of the Last 25 Years," by Max Wilbert, available online at BrainScape.com. Science Daily is another source for articles on news and breakthroughs in chemistry and other fields of science.Full Answer >
In chemistry, quantum numbers describe the orbitals in which electrons are found in an atom. There are four quantum numbers in total, which all describe the characteristics and locations of electrons in their orbitals. The four quantum numbers include: the principal quantum number (n), the angular quantum number (l), the magnetic quantum number (m) and the spin quantum number (ms).Full Answer >