According to The Geological Society, compaction occurs when sediments are buried underneath other layers causing them to stick together due to pressure. On the other hand, cementation occurs when new minerals act as binding agents that bind the sediments together. The main difference between the two processes is that compaction brings the sediments together, and cementation binds the sediment grains together.Continue Reading
Compaction and cementation are prominent processes in lithification, the process of turning new, sandy sediment into hard rock formations. Lithification works to remove the air and water in the open spaces of loose, new sediment. As the process begins, both compaction and cementation work to reduce the porous space in sediment and bind the sediments together.
Compaction forces the sediments together to eliminate the open spaces within each sediment. As the sediment grains come into contact with one another, they become buried further down due to the overlying pressure.
During this process, the open pores not reduced by compaction are filled during cementation. Cementation fills the open pores with various minerals such as calcite, clay, silica and iron oxides. These minerals bind the grains together to form solid rock formations.
Not all of the pores need to be filled within these first stages of lithification because the rock can still be changed over time. Lithification is completed during the diagenesis stage.Learn more about Geology
Terrigenous sediments are marine sediments typically formed by the weathering and erosion of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Rivers are a major factor in the transportation of these sediments.Full Answer >
Bedrock can be made of igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rock, but all bedrock is consolidated by aggregate pressure from above showing up beneath gravel, soil, sand and ocean sediments. Any type of rock can turn into bedrock over time as other materials develop on top of it.Full Answer >
Chert is most often created when microcrystals of silicon dioxide are formed within soft sediments that over time will turn into chalk or limestone. When large amounts of silicon dioxide microcrystals are present in the sediment, they start to clump together and can eventually form whole layers of chert within a limestone deposit.Full Answer >
The Dugway Geode Beds are lake sediments located in Juab County, Utah. Rock collectors search this area for geodes filled with massive banded clear, purple and pink quartz.Full Answer >