Genes are individual segments of DNA and chromosomes are structures which contain many genes packed together. Each chromosome contains one DNA molecule and each DNA molecule contains several genes or individual strands.Continue Reading
Genes are the basic unit in the study of genetics. Each gene contains the specific code relating to the function of a single protein. Genes combine to form specific DNA molecules. The nucleus of the cell of an organism contains chromatin, which is complex combination of proteins and DNA. When cell division occurs during reproduction, the chromatin forms with the DNA into a chromosome.
In a chromosome, the DNA is tightly packed together with histone proteins. If all the DNA strands in the human body were laid end to end, they would form a very thin strand about 6 billion miles long. The complexity of the organism usually predicts the number of genes and chromosomes. A frog, for example, has 26 chromosomes, or 13 pairs, while a human being has 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs. Human chromosomes range from 300 genes to 8,000 genes in size.
Chromosomes are paired as the offspring receives one from each parent. Chromosomes and sometimes their combination in the pair determine all inherited characteristics, including sex. For instance, two X chromosomes will produce a female baby while an XY combination will produce a male baby.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
Homologous pairs of chromosomes carry the same genes. Although the chromosomes carry the same genes, each chromosome in a homologous pair could carry a different form of the gene, called an allele. One chromosome of each homologous pair is taken from each parent.Full Answer >
Homologous chromosomes have the same genes, gene order and approximate length in common. A gene's location is called its loci. For every gene that exists at a certain loci on one homologous chromosome, the same gene exists at the same loci on the other chromosome of the homologous pair.Full Answer >
Genetic information is stored in several places, which are DNA molecules, genes, chromosomes, mitochondria and the genome. Different amounts and types of genetic information are stored in these locations. The majority of genetic information is stored within individual DNA molecules, although it is found in other cellular locations as well.Full Answer >
Mendel's Law is observed in meiosis because modern scientists are fully aware of chromosomes and genes, and paired chromosomes separate during meiosis. In this way gene pairs are segregated, proving Mendel's Law of Segregation beyond doubt.Full Answer >