The supercontinent Pangea began to break apart roughly 200 million years ago during the Jurassic period. The broken supercontinent allowed the Atlantic and Indian Oceans to form and allowed the modern-day continents to become established.
Pangea was fully formed during the early Permian period, which took place around 270 million years ago. It incorporated almost all of Earth's modern-day landmasses and covered roughly a third of the Earth's surface. Surrounding the large landmass was a global ocean known as Panthalassa. The breakup of the supercontinent is believed to have occurred due to the movement of plate tectonics in the Earth's lithosphere.