Charles Darwin completed his research supporting the theory of evolution while travelling on HMS Beagle between 1831 and 1836, sailing with it to places important to his studies, including the Cape Verde Islands, Quail Island, the Falkland Islands, the Galápagos Islands and Tahiti. Darwin published his most notable work, "On the Origin of Species," while living in London. He was a member of the Council of the Geological Society.
Darwin collected specimens and studied the geology while on the island of St. Jago in the Cape Verde Islands and on Quail Island. He speculated that volcanic islands had formed from lava flows. Darwin also collected specimens from fossils on the Falkland Islands while examining the relationship between species' characteristics and their habitats.
BBC History notes that while on the Galápagos Islands in 1835, Darwin examined the difference in species separated onto distinct islands, noting individual adaptation and their correlation with the surrounding habitat. After returning to England, Darwin presented his research results and theories derived from observing the Galápagos birds and tortoises to the Council of the Geological Society and to the Zoological Society in London.
Wikipedia notes that while living in London, Darwin published numerous books, including "Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle," "The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs" and "The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex."