Q:

How do I describe the process of chemiosmosis?

A:

Quick Answer

Chemiosmosis is the process by which chemical ions move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a selectively permeable membrane. Chemiosmosis is the process by which ATP, or adenosine triphosphate, is synthesized.

Continue Reading

Full Answer

During this movement, hydrogen ions diffuse across a biological membrane using a transport protein, specifically ATP synthase. These protons begin travel because of a gradient that forms on the other side of the membrane. The accumulation of hydrogen ions in the area of higher concentration and the forced movement of ions across the membrane via carrier proteins triggers the formation of the electrochemical concentration gradient. While protons move to the other side of the membrane, electrons flow through the electron transport chain. This reoccurring flow of protons and electrons releases energy. This energy is used to convert ADP, or adenosine diphosphate, to ATP. This conversion is completed by a process called phosphorylation. Phosphorylation is simply the addition of a phosphate group to an organic molecule. Chemiosmosis generally occurs in chloroplasts, mitochondria, bacteria and archaea. The generation of ATP regularly occurs during cellular respiration. The chemiosmotic hypothesis was proposed by Peter D. Mitchell in 1961. In 1978 the chemist was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Learn more about Chemistry

Related Questions

  • Q:

    What happens during chemiosmosis?

    A:

    Chemiosmosis is the pumping of protons through special channels in the membranes of mitochondria. This results in a proton gradient down which protons spontaneously travel. This movement of electrons produces energy, which is used by mitochondria to bind phosphate ions to adenosine diphosphate, creating adenosine triphosphate, the main energy currency of cells.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What are the benefits of ionized air?

    A:

    Once negative ions from ionized air reach the bloodstream, they produce biochemical reactions that increase levels of the chemical serotonin, which is key in the treatment of depression, and increase the flow of oxygen to the brain, boosting mental energy. Negative ions can also protect against airborne germs, says WebMD.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What happens during a chemical change?

    A:

    Alterations to the electron-based ionic or covalent bonds between ions or atoms happen during a chemical change. Such changes result in one or more new substances with different physical and chemical properties. This type of change stands in contrast to physical changes which, despite sometimes closely resembling chemical changes, only produce a change in physical properties.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:
  • Q:

    What is simple diffusion?

    A:

    Simple diffusion is a process of diffusion that occurs without the aid of an integral membrane protein. This type of diffusion occurs without any energy, and it allows substances to pass through cell membranes.

    Full Answer >
    Filed Under:

Explore