An electron is a negatively charged sub-atomic particle that is located in an atom along with protons and neutrons. The electrons are found in shells and sub-orbitals that surround the nucleus of the atom.
Electrons are used to form electrovalent and covalent bonds between different atoms, allowing compounds to form. In physics and chemistry, an electron is abbreviated as an e (e−) or a beta with a minus sign (β−). The loss or acquisition of an electron allows a particle to become positively or negatively charged. The electrical charge of an electron is −1.60 × 10-19 coulombs. Electrons can behave like waves, as described by the wave–particle duality.