The cell nucleus is the command center and thus controls the activities of the eukaryotic cell. A double-walled cell nuclear envelope separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and controls its shape while allowing chemical compounds to pass to and from the nucleus to control other activities in the cell. The nucleus contains the chromosomes, consisting of DNA, that regulate cell growth and reproduction.Continue Reading
The nucleus contains the nucleolus, a dense RNA and protein structure. Inside this structure are the organizers that form chromosomes with genes necessary for ribosome synthesis. The nucleus also regulates protein synthesis in the cytoplasm using messenger RNA, which travels to the cytoplasm through pores in the nuclear envelope. Once there, messenger RNA is translated using ribosomes and transfer RNA in the production of proteins. The nucleus regulates the molecules allowed through the pores of the membrane to prevent some larger molecules entering from the cytoplasm.
In animals, the nucleus is the largest cell organelle. Human cells have a nucleus that averages between 11 and 22 micrometers in diameter and occupies approximately 10 percent of the cell volume. It is large enough to observe and study using an electron microscope. Scientists believe mutations occurring in the nucleus are a key to developing diseases as well as the body's response to these diseases.Learn more about Cells
According to the National Institute of Health, or NIH, there are actually four stages of the cell cycle of a eukaryotic cell: M phase, G1 phase, S phase and G2 phase. Not all eukaryotic cells complete the cycle at the same pace, meaning the type of cell dictates the amount of time.Full Answer >
Proteins are produced by stringing amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA strands that were transcribed from DNA in the cell nucleus. The process of synthesizing a protein is called translation, and it occurs on ribosomes in the cytoplasm of a cell.Full Answer >
Robert Brown discovered and named the cell nucleus in the 19th century. The discovery was made when he was trying to determine why pollen grains moved inconsistently in the water.Full Answer >
In a eukaryotic cell, the final stage of protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm after the initial stage, which happens in the nucleus. In a prokaryotic cell, there is no need for the second stage of the process.Full Answer >