The Arctic tundra biome is located on North America and Asia. It is found in three countries: Canada, the United States and Russia. The tundra features cold temperatures, low desert-like precipitation and permafrost.
Permafrost is a soil condition in which a subsurface layer of the ground is permanently frozen; it is generally thick enough to prevent water and plant roots from penetrating. Consequently, only the upper surface of the ground thaws in tundra summers, permitting shallow-rooted plants to flourish. The surface water saturates the ground above the permafrost line and pools on the surface, creating a wet and marsh-like environment.