According to the BBC, the main receptors for the sense of balance are located in the ears. Receptors in the muscles and visual input from the eyes also assist in the perception of the body’s position.
The BBC explains that receptors known as maculae are inside the sacs in each ear. The receptors are made from sensory hair cells and covered with a cap containing tiny crystals. The movement of the crystals pulls on the sensory hairs, which triggers nerve impulses in the brain. The crista ampullaris, another type of receptor found in the ear, is responsible for detecting the rotation of the head. Other receptors are found in the muscles and are known as proprioceptors. It is their job to detect stretching in the tendons, muscles and joints.