Chlorophyll is found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of some plant and algae cells. Chlorophyll is a pigment that absorbs visible light, allowing the organism to carry out the process of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll primarily absorbs the blue and red light from each end of the visible spectrum causing it to reflect green light and giving it a bright green color.
By absorbing the light from the sun, chlorophyll enables the plants to engage in photosynthesis. When plants engage in photosynthesis, they manufacture their own food. Such organisms combine sunlight with carbon dioxide and water to create sugars and oxygen. These sugars serve as chemical storage sites for energy. When the plant needs energy in the future, it breaks the chemical bonds of the sugar to release the energy. This process takes place primarily in the chloroplasts of plants, which are small organelles found in some of the plant’s cells.
Photosynthesis uses other pigments in addition to chlorophyll. Carotenoids are another type of pigment that gives plants an orange color. Although carotenoids cannot carry out photosynthesis by themselves, they pass along the energy they capture to chlorophyll. Phycobilins are another pigment like chlorophyll, and they reside in the cells of cyanobacteria and rhodophyta.