The two main conditions that cause enzymes to denature are an increase in temperature and an increase in the pH level. Enzymes work during a specific set of conditions, such as certain temperatures and pH levels, so if either are altered, they can lose their shape and ability to function.
Denaturation is the process where an enzyme, which is a specific type of protein, loses its structure. Denaturation has been studied extensively in lab environments. If a strong acid or base is added to an enzyme, it loses structure. Similarly, if the liquid that contains the enzyme is heated to 60 degrees Celsius or higher, denaturation will occur.