Chromosomes are made of long aggregates of genes formed from condensed chromatin. Chromatin is made up of DNA, proteins, RNA and other macromolecules. It is located in the nucleus of a cell and becomes a chromosome during the prophase stage of mitosis in eukaryotic cell division.Continue Reading
One of the main functions of chromatin is to reduce the size of DNA so it can fit in the cell. It does this by wrapping a DNA molecule tightly around proteins called histones. The histones are there to maintain the structure of the chromosome. Other functions of chromatin include reinforcing DNA molecules for mitosis, preventing DNA damage, and helping to control DNA replication.
A fully formed chromosome is made up of two chromatin sections that join together at a central point called the centromere. One of the chromatin sections, or arms, is generally shorter than the other. The shorter section is referred to as the "p arm" of the chromosome, and the longer section is called the "q arm."
Before cell division occurs, chromosomes cannot be seen inside the nucleus, even with the help of a microscope. It is only during cell division that the DNA becomes compact enough to be observed, so most of what scientists know about chromosomes comes from observing cell division.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
The chromosome that carries the fewest number of genes is the Y chromosome. The Y chromosome carries only about 344 genes. Genes on the Y chromosome determine sex and code for male sexual characteristics.Full Answer >
Chromatin is a combination of different things that make up chromosomes. This combination includes DNA, histone and other proteins. Chromatin can be found in eukaryotic cells in the nuclear envelope.Full Answer >
Chromatin is made of nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, and proteins. During cell division, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells differ in where chromatin is housed. In eukaryotes, it is located in the nucleus and in prokaryotes, it is located in the nucleoid.Full Answer >
Chromatin and chromosomes are both structures of DNA, but chromosomes are condensed chromatin. DNA exists as chromatin a majority of the time so that the DNA is accessible to proteins for transcription and proteins can be made during the process of translation. Chromatin is condensed into chromosomes during mitosis to ensure that replicated genetic information is divided equally between the two resulting daughter cells.Full Answer >