A nucleotide is composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and a phosphate group. Nucleotides are the basic components of genetic materials, such as DNA and RNA.
Nucleotides aid in cell signaling, energy transfer in cells and metabolism. They create polymer chains connected by hydrogen bonds between phosphate and sugar molecules, resulting in the formation of DNA and RNA. The sugars determine if the chain creates RNA or DNA, and the bases represent the fundamental building blocks of genes. A deoxyribose sugar atom results in the formation of DNA, while a ribose atom is responsible for the creation of RNA.