Chlorophyll is a chemical in plants, that absorbs the red light and most of the blue light that comes from sunlight. Sunlight is composed of the full spectrum of light wavelengths.
Chlorophyll converts the energy from sunlight into chemical energy that plants need to grow. Because it is the particular wavelength of red and blue light plants use for photosynthesis, plants can function using artificial light as long is it is full-spectrum light.
Chlorophyll uses the energy from the sun, along with water and carbon dioxide, to produce chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in a part of plants' cells called chloroplasts, which are most plentiful in plants' leaves. The chemical energy is stored as sugars for plants to use as needed. Although the red and blue light in sunshine is absorbed for use in this process, the yellow light and some traces of blue light that are not absorbed reflect back, giving chlorophyll, and therefore plants, their green color. In addition to green light waves, the other by-product of photosynthesis is oxygen. Humans inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide while plants absorb carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in a symbiotic relationship beneficial to both organisms.