Chromosomes exchange genetic information in the form of genes during the process of meiosis. This process creates both egg and sperm cells in females and males, respectively. During meiosis, crossing over occurs between the chromosomes to exchange genetic information and create unique eggs and sperm.Continue Reading
Meiosis is a process in which egg and sperm cells duplicate to create new egg and sperm cells. The process is broken into meiosis I and meiosis II. During both meiosis I and meiosis II crossing over, or recombination, occurs between the chromosomes. Homologous chromosome exchange DNA through the formation of a chiasma. This structure physically bind the chromosomes together so that their DNA is close to each other.
Genes can then switch from one chromosome to another and complete the process of recombination. This process occurs during both meiosis I and meiosis II to form four unique daughter cells. Each of the daughter cells that are produced during the entire process of meiosis are haploid, meaning they only contain half of the number of chromosomes they need to produce a viable organism. They start out as diploid cells, but during meiosis II the daughter cells undergo reduction division to reduce the number of chromosomes each cell possesses. Then, when the egg and sperm cell meet, the resulting zygote gains a full set of chromosomes.Learn more about Molecular Biology & DNA
The function of chromosomes is to carry around hereditary information in the form of DNA. Each chromosome contains a single coiled molecule of DNA tightly wrapped around proteins called histones. As a result of this structure, long strands of DNA are compact enough to fit inside of cells.Full Answer >
Tetrads, also known as bivalents, form during the prophase 1 stage of meiosis when duplicated chromosomes, each composed of two identical chromatids, pair up and complete the process of crossing over in which one chromosome exchanges corresponding segments of genetic material with the other chromosome in the tetrad. This exchange of physical parts and genetic information creates a tight grouping of the two chromosomes, each consisting of two sister chromatids.Full Answer >
Genetic manipulation, also called genetic engineering, refers to the alteration of the genes of an organism. It involves manually adding new DNA to an organism to add new traits. Examples of genetically engineered organisms include plants that are resistant to certain insects, plants that tolerate herbicides and crops with altered oil content.Full Answer >
Genetic variation generally refers to the differences in genes between individual members of a population, or the frequency in which the various gene types are expressed. Genetic variation is incredibly important for the survival and adaptation of a species, as it helps in terms of natural selection and evolution.Full Answer >