In plant cells, chloroplasts perform photosynthesis, a process that converts light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Plants can later use this stored chemical energy to carry out activities integral to life, such as growth and reproduction.Continue Reading
Chloroplasts are primarily found in the cells that make up a plant's leaves, organs that are specialized to capture light. The process of photosynthesis performed within the chloroplasts uses water, light and carbon dioxide, and it gives off glucose and oxygen. Photosynthesis is divided into light and dark reactions. The light reactions use water and light to synthesize ATP and NADPH; the dark reactions use the energy stored in that ATP along with carbon dioxide and NADPH to produce glucose, ADP, and NADP+. ADP and NADP+ are recycled for use in the light reactions, and the process continually repeats itself.
Chloroplasts, despite the integral nature of their function, are likely unrelated to the plant cells in which they reside. Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, have their own DNA, and they divide independently of the plant cell cycle. Also, a cell is unable to replenish its chloroplasts when they are removed. Evidence like this has led scientists to develop endosymbiotic theory. Endosymbiotic theory posits that chloroplasts and other key organelles originated separately from their host cells, and at some point in history, a single-celled organism engulfed a chloroplast, forming an enduring symbiotic relationship that persists pervasively today.Learn more about Cells
Photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert the sun's energy to glucose, takes place during daylight hours when the plant's leaves are exposed to sunlight. This process only occurs in green plants and in some protist species. Carbon dioxide and water must also be present in order for photosynthesis to occur.Full Answer >
The part of the plant cell that gives the plant its green color is an organelle called the chloroplast. Inside the chloroplast there are pigment molecules called chlorophyll, which is the substance that gives plants their green color.Full Answer >
The cell wall of plants maintains the shape of plant cells, supports and strengthens plants, resists water pressure, controls cell growth, regulates metabolic processes for the plant, acts as a physical barrier for the plant, stores carbohydrates and helps with cell to cell signaling. The cell wall is a tough, yet flexible layer that surrounds the cell membrane of plant cells.Full Answer >
The main way the energy processing organelles, mitochondira and chloroplasts, can be contrasted is in the way they produce useful chemical energy and what they use to do it, according to Florida International University. Mitochondria are found in both animals and plants, while only plants and algae have chloroplasts.Full Answer >