Vinyl chloride, chloromethane and the banned pesticide DDT are examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are organic molecules wherein chlorine has been substituted for some of the hydrogen molecules that were bonded to the carbon.Continue Reading
Chlorinated hydrocarbons have many industrial applications, including the manufacture of nonstick cookware, industrial solvents and pesticides. Some organochlorides are naturally occurring, although most useful chlorinated hydrocarbons are synthesized in a lab or chemical plant.
Biosynthesized organochlorides include alkaloids, terpenes, amino acids, fatty acids and steroids. Special organochlorides called dioxins are produced in the high-temperature reactions that occur in forest fires. These dioxins are toxic and mutagenic, having deleterious effects on the immune, nervous and reproductive systems of forest animals.
Vinyl chloride is an organochloride that can be polymerized to produce polyvinylchloride, abbreviated PVC. This polymer is used to produce piping and nonstick coatings. A specialized layer of a closely related cousin to PVC, called poly-tetrafluroethane, is patented as the nonstick coating Teflon.
Other chlorinated hydrocarbons are used as solvents, pesticides, coatings, precursors and synthetic rubber. Chlorinated hydrocarbons may pose a threat to human and environmental health. The complications that these products cause may not become evident for years or decades. An infamous example of the negative effects of chlorinated hydrocarbons is the pesticide DDT, which devastated bird populations by weakening the outer structure of eggs.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
According to the Helsinki website, the infrared spectrum of isopentyl acetate contains one ester peak in the 1735–1745 cm -1 range, hydrocarbon bonds just below 3000 cm -1, and carboxyl and carbonyl C-O bonds between 1050 and 1300 cm -1. At least one of each exists.Full Answer >
Nonaromatic compounds are hydrocarbon compounds that do not have a conjugate ring system, such as naphthalene, benzene or imidazole. They are sometimes referred to as aliphatic compounds.Full Answer >
Lipids are a diverse group of biological compounds, but they share the general property of being at least partially not water soluble and are composed of a series of hydrocarbon chains, ending with groups of bonded hydrogen and oxygen. Types of lipids include oils, fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. Lipids are crucial to all forms of life and are the main constituent of every cell membrane on Earth. They are also a major form of energy storage for animals and other organisms.Full Answer >
Alkanes are hydrocarbons with single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms, while alkenes are hydrocarbons with one or more double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons are either aliphatic or aromatic. Alkanes and alkenes are aliphatic hydrocarbons, which means they are both formed when oils or fats are degraded chemically.Full Answer >