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What are the characteristics of a centrifugal pump?

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Quick Answer

Characteristics of a centrifugal pump include converting rotational kinetic energy to hydrodynamic energy. These pumps utilize resistance to fluid flow to control the kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of an impeller. Engines and electric motors are typically utilized to provide kinetic energy. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to transport water, sewage, petroleum and other liquids.

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Full Answer

Centrifugal pumps use rotational energy to move fluids. Fluids enter the pump axially through eye of a casing and are then displaced by the blades of an impeller. As the impeller rotates, fluid radiates outwards through all the circumferential parts of the impeller and into the diffuser part of the casing. The impeller also increases the viscosity and pressure of the fluid. The diffuser decelerates the rate of fluid flow which increases pressure.

Vertical centrifugal pumps, often referred to as cantilever pumps, utilize a unique shaft and bearing support configuration. This design positions the volute within the sump. Cantilever pumps require no stuffing box to seal the shaft. Multistage centrifugal pumps utilize multiple impellers mounted on one or more shafts. Connecting impellers in a series allows for higher outlet pressure while parallel mounted impellers can produce increased fluid flow. Multistage centrifugal pumps are commonly used as a boiler feedwater pump.

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