How Does a Centrifugal Pump Work?

The centrifugal pump works by using a rotating impeller that creates a low pressure sector at the inlet of the impeller. This area is referred to as the eye of the impeller. The low pressure sucks in the fluid around it, which is then pushed along the impeller to the casing where it collects before being pumped out through the discharge nozzle, completing the cycle.

The centrifugal pump is a relatively simple device used often in hydraulics systems because of its ability to push liquid through a piping system with relative ease. The pump relies on centrifugal force to operate. Centrifugal force, along with other centrifugal hydraulic principles, can be used to regulate the pressure and motion of the liquid within the centrifugal pump. There are four different types of centrifugal pumps. One is mechanically actuated that has a reciprocating mechanical linkage directly attached to the diaphragm working in conjunction with a set of gears to operate the motor. A hydraulically actuated centrifugal pump works in much the same as a mechanically actuated one, but it uses hydraulic fluid rather than gears. A solenoid centrifugal pump has an electric motor to alternately energize and de-energize the solenoid. This creates an electromagnetic force that helps the pump function. The final type is an air-operated, double-diaphragm centrifugal pump that has two diaphragms and two sets of valves. The flow in the pump is regulated by the air pressure created and distributed to the pump.