The cellulose wall forms at the plasma membrane of the parent cell, explains Scitable. Cellulose biosynthesis occurs during the growth cycle of plant cells. A growing cell wall contains cellulose microfibrils that are made from protein chains.Continue Reading
When a plant cell reproduces, it forms a new structure called a cell plate, notes the American Society of Plant Biologists. A substance called callose is deposited and synthesized in the cell plate, causing it to expand until it reaches the "zone of attachment" on the mother cell wall. After it's attached, it goes through a maturating process during which the callose is replaced by cellulose and pectin. Cellulose biosynthesis occurs at the plasma membrane, and pectin biosynthesis happens within structures called the Golgi.
Plant cell walls are the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the Earth, says Scitable. Plant cells are encased in a complex wall that constitutes the raw material used to manufacture textiles, paper, lumber, films, thickeners and other products. The cell wall serves to strengthen the plant body and also has key roles in growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defense. Without cell walls, plants would look like more like slime molds than trees and bushes.Learn more about Cells
Scitable explains that the central role of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is to convert instructions written in the code of the organism's DNA into proteins. However, RNA is also involved in a number of other processes, such as signaling other cells and functioning as catalysts in cellular chemistry. Additionally, the ribosomes, which convert RNA into structural proteins, are themselves composed primarily of RNA.Full Answer >
Cell membranes receive specialized chemicals from neural activity in the brain, and then protein receptors within a cell determine which chemical process to undertake based on the chemical received, according to Scitable. The human body contains hundreds of receptors within individual cells.Full Answer >
The energy molecule of the cell is called adenosine 5-triphosphate, or ATP, according to Scitable by Nature Education. ATP stores and transfers energy in cells.Full Answer >
Cellular division, or mitosis, produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. As explained by Clinton Community College, mitosis allows multicellular organisms to grow and repair damaged tissue. Daughter cells are also produced during meiosis, which is a special type of cell division that enables organisms to sexually reproduce. Daughter cells produced in meiosis have one half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell.Full Answer >