In plants, the cellular structures involved in producing more cells are the nuclei, which divide in a process known as mitosis. These structures, considered to be the control centers of the cell, contain the genetic information of an organism.
Cells are the fundamental units of life that carry out vital processes to sustain the continued survival of an organism. Multicellular organisms, including plants and animals, consist of compartmentalized structures called organelles that perform highly specialized functions. Some organelles that are present in plant and animal cells include mitochondria, Golgi body, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus. Plant cells contain cell walls and chloroplasts, which are both lacking in animal cells.
Cells typically undergo mitosis for the organism to grow and develop. Rather than increase in size, the number of cells are multiplied during this process. Mitotic cell division generates two identical daughter cells from a parent cell. It is preceded by a period known as interphase where deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, found in the cell's nucleus is replicated.
Mitosis in plants begins with prophase where the nuclear envelope disintegrates and chromosomal DNA in the form of sister chromatids, become visible. The chromatids align at the equator during metaphase and migrate to opposite sides of the cell during anaphase. In telophase, which is the last stage of mitosis, the chromosomes are tightly packed into chromatin. Two new nuclear envelopes form around the chromatin on each side of the cell. A cell wall then develops between the two newly formed daughter cells.