Chromosomes are located in the nucleus of every cell found in both plants and animals. These structures are thread-like substances that are comprised of proteins and one single DNA molecule. Each chromosome in the human body and in plants contains one molecule of DNA that signals cells to repair themselves and function properly.
Chromosomes have a unique structure that allows them to keep their DNA molecules wrapped tightly around proteins known as histones. The DNA is tightly wrapped in order to be condensed in size so that the large molecule can fit inside each cell of the human body. The chromosomes protect their single DNA molecules so that the human body can continue to grow and function properly. At any given moment cells in the human body are dividing to produce new cells and recycle old cells. During cellular division the DNA needs to stay protected and intact as it is duplicated and is integrated into the new cells. Chromosomes allow the DNA to be copied and placed into new cells without damaging the DNA. During cellular division the DNA inside each chromosome also plays a crucial role in determining the types of cells that become duplicated. DNA strands are read and translated into new cells, proteins, hormones and more throughout the entire human body on a daily basis.