Medscape explains that ovarian torsion, or a twisted ovary, is caused by a lack of blood flow from the ovary. The lack of blood flow can be caused by a stromal edema, internal bleeding, hyperstimulation or a mass, such as an ovarian cyst.
Mayo Clinic explains that sometimes when ovarian cysts enlarge, they force an ovary out of its typical position on the pelvis, resulting in a twisted ovary. The twisting can be extremely painful and typically requires surgical intervention to remove the cyst and return the ovary to a normal position.
According to Medscape, a twisted ovary typically involves a damaged fallopian tube. While this condition can exist without any symptoms, the website explains that it is an uncommon but potent cause of severe abdominal pain.
According to Wikipedia, women are at a much higher risk for a twisted ovary during menopause and pregnancy. The website also acknowledges ovarian tumors as a common cause of a twisted ovary, but common types of cysts may also cause this condition. Wikipedia explains that women who develop cysts during their reproductive years are at a much greater risk of ovarian torsion when they age because the mass limits the blood flow to the ovary.