Although there are numerous ways to separate salt from water, you can use a simple solar process with minimal equipment over the course of two to three days. The required materials are a baking sheet, black paper and salt water.
Lay the black paper on the baking sheet
Use black paper, because the color black absorbs all frequencies of visible light. It becomes heated from the sun more easily and quickly than paper of another color. It is important that the baking sheet becomes hot so that the water can evaporate.
Pour the salt water on the baking sheet
Cover the entirety of the black paper with the salt water.
Set the baking sheet in a warm place and wait
The baking sheet can be placed somewhere in the sun, such as a spot outside or near a sunlit window. This helps it become hot faster, which helps the water evaporate into the air more quickly. As the water evaporates, the salt stays in the baking sheet, causing the concentration of salt in the water to increase. When the concentration becomes so high that the water is supersaturated, the salt begins to crystallize into a solid. After a few days, all of the water evaporates, leaving the salt behind. This means that the water and salt have been successfully separated.