Making pure hydrogen requires either electric separation, referred to as electrolysis, or chemical separation using metal and a hydrogen-based acid. Electrolysis uses a direct current passing through water, which breaks down the hydrogen and oxygen based on the electrode’s polarity, and is the preferred method.Continue Reading
Use a rectangular 9-volt battery, also called a transistor battery, and note the polarity on the terminals.
Dissolve 1 tablespoon of table salt in a gallon of tap water. The salt helps conduct electricity, improving the result.
Use a glass or ceramic bread baking pan, and fill it with the salted water. Take two small glass jars or test tubes and submerge them in the pan of water. Invert the jars, making sure no air is trapped inside.
Use two wires and connect one to each pole on the battery. If possible use plastic insulated wire with about 1 inch exposed on either end.
Place the positive wire under one jar and the negative wire under the other. Bubbles will form on the exposed wire and then rise. The positive electrode creates oxygen, while the negative electrode creates hydrogen. To stop the process, disconnect one or both wires from the battery.
Do not place both electrodes beneath a single container. Doing this creates a mix of oxygen and hydrogen gas, which can easily explode.
Manufacturers produce chlorine from the electrolysis of seawater. The process separates sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt. While chlorine is an element, the gas readily combines with other elements to form salts, and elemental chlorine does not exist naturally on earth.Full Answer >
In 1807, English chemist Humphry Davy discovered elemental sodium by isolating it from sodium hydroxide through electrolysis. In nature, sodium is never found in elemental form – only in compounds.Full Answer >
"Oxygen is prepared for commercial use by the liquefaction and fractional distillation of air and more expensively by the electrolysis of water," according to Reference.com. Producers then store the purified oxygen in gas cylinders under high pressure as a liquid.Full Answer >
A pure substance that cannot be broken down is an element. Atoms of the same element are identical physically and chemically. An element's atoms are physically and chemically different from those of another element.Full Answer >