Axial stress can be calculated by dividing the total axial force applied on an object by its cross-sectional area. It is a stress that changes the length of a body.
Axial force is applied in a direction parallel to the axis of the object, hence the name "axial." Axial stress may be either compressive stress or tensile stress. Compressive stress tends to make a body shorter, while tensile stress makes it longer. Axial stress is a cylinder stress pattern, meaning that it remains unchanged even if the object is rotated about its axis.
All cylinder stress patterns are an important concern when constructing anything that is cylindrical in shape. Engineers use different solutions to combat the effects of these stresses, but one of the most recognizable may be the hoops placed around wooden barrels.