Earth science can be broken into many branches, which include: geology, oceanography, climatology, meteorology and environmental science. Astronomy is also considered a branch within earth science.
Geology is defined as the study of Earth's natural materials and structures, along with the processes that created them. Geologists study the natural processes on Earth. They also study how resources found on Earth can be used by humans as resources. Oceanography can be considered a sub-branch within geology that studies the environment within the oceans.
Climatology is the study of the Earth's atmosphere. Climatologists try to better understand how and why the climate undergoes changes. Meteorology is similar to climatology but focuses more on short-term weather patterns and natural disasters. Meteorologists use radars, satellites and other tools to monitor and predict weather.
Environmental science focuses on the effects humans have on the Earth's environment. It is closely related to climatology, as environmental scientists are also interested in climate change. Environmental scientists also study how the Earth's environment impacts human health, how to properly clean up and dispose of pollution, how to increase efficiency of industrial techniques in order to reduce their environmental impact and the effects of different chemicals on the environment.
Astronomists study outer space. They use telescopes to monitor and explore far away planets, suns and galaxies. They also help to design and build probes and satellites that are used to further collect information.