The brachial artery is the major blood vessel of the upper arm and supplies it with oxygenated blood, according to Healthline. The brachial artery is continuous with the axillary artery of the armpit and runs down the anterior surface of the upper arm.
At the triangular depression of the elbow's anterior side, the brachial artery is in close proximity to the medial cubital vein, radial nerve and biceps brachii tendon. Together, these structures make up the cubital fossa. Below the cubital fossa area, the brachial artery divides into two arteries that run down the forearm: the radial and ulnar. The brachial artery also distributes blood to the superior ulnar collateral, inferior ulnar collateral and profunda brachii arteries. According to Healthline, the brachial artery's pulse can be felt near the cubital fossa, so blood pressure is measured in this area.