About.com states that a bone doctor is called an orthopedist. An orthopedist is a doctor that specializes in the treatment of bones as well as muscles, joints, nerves, ligaments and tendons. An orthopedist is not a podiatrist although one can specialize in the treatment of bones in the foot.
The word “orthopedics” is a Greek word composed from the word “ortho,” which means “straight,” and a derivative of the word “pais,” which means "children." About.com states that the orthopedists' initial involvement in the treatment of crippled children granted them their name, and most modern-day orthopedists still focus on spine and musculoskeletal issues.