All of the ocean’s plants, animals and more primitive organisms are biotic factors for the marine biome. The marine biome is the largest biome on Earth, and it covers approximately 75 percent of the planet.
Examples of the biotic factors of the marine biome are numerous. Plants such as seaweed are common, as are single-celled algae. A wide variety of animals inhabits the marine biome as well. Invertebrates, such as clams, crabs, lobsters, shrimp, starfish, octopi and sea spiders crawl or swim along the bottom of the ocean, while others, such as squid and jellyfish travel throughout the water column. Larger animals are common in the marine biome as well, including fish, sharks, stingrays, whales and dolphins. Some animals attach themselves to a single spot for their entire lives, such as barnacles, corals and anemones. The marine biome is even affected by animals that spend only a portion of their time in the water, such as polar bears, walruses, seals and sea lions.
Many of the ocean’s creatures form complex relationships with other organisms. For example, clown fish have evolved to be immune to the stinging tentacles of sea anemones. They can live inside the anemone’s protective protuberances and survive by eating little pieces of uneaten food. Similarly, remoras attach themselves to sharks and eat the debris in the water left over from kills.