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What is the biopsychosocial model?

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The biopsychosocial model is an interdisciplinary model that assumes health and wellness are affected by a number of psychological, biological and sociocultural factors. The BPS model was first published in the journal Science in 1977 by psychiatrist George L. Engel. In light of his model, there was a dramatic shift in focus from disease to health and in considering how psychosocial factors affect illness and disease.

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The earliest theories of pain focused mainly on the biological and pathophysical component of pain. The BPS model is still a r method used by psychiatrists. Biological factors include the physical or mental health of an individual. The emphasis on social factors recognizes social context and influence. Factors such as depression, anxiety, hostility and illness affect behavior and the ways in which individuals perceive, experience, evaluate and respond to their health can affect the progression and outcome of an illness.

For those who subscribe to the BPS model, it has become very important to consider an individual's daily life, performance of social roles, productivity, intellectual capacity, emotional stability and psychological well-being when diagnosing or treating an illness or disease. Many institutions and medical doctors have taken a holistic view on health with sound medical application based on the BPS model. The state of being in good health on the BPS model is accompanied by good quality of life and strong relationships.

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