The tundra biome has the shortest growing season, ranging from 50 to 60 days in the Arctic tundra to up to 180 days in Alpine tundras. Tundra biomes are distinguished by low biodiversity and domination by mosses, lichens and perennial shrubs.
Tundras' growing conditions are defined by poor soils, slow decomposition rates, windy conditions and low temperatures. Permafrost is present in the Arctic tundra but not in Alpine tundras where drainage is usually better. Plants in tundras are typically low growing and capable of carrying out photosynthesis at low temperatures and low light intensities. They usually reproduce by budding and division instead of flowering.