Biological disasters are outbreaks of diseases or contagions of plant and animal life on an epidemic or pandemic level or infestations of animal or insect life on an epidemic or pandemic level. Examples of biological disasters include cholera and influenza H1N1 (swine flu).Know More
Epidemic-level biological disasters affect large numbers of people within a given community or area, whereas pandemic-level biological disasters effect a much larger region, sometimes spanning entire continents or the globe. Cholera is an epidemic-level biological disaster, while swine flu is a pandemic. Other epidemic examples include Ebola, dengue fever, malaria and the measles.
The United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) categorizes biological hazards that could potentially cause a biological disaster into four levels. These are classified as biosafety levels 1-4 or BSL 1-4. BSL 1 contains viruses like chicken pox and requires only the use of facial covering and gloves to protect against contagion.
BSL 2 contains diseases and viruses that are not generally airborne, such as hepatitis and HIV. BSL 2 takes more extreme precautions within a lab setting for safety purposes, including the use of autoclaves for sterilizing and biological safety cabinets.
BSL 3 includes diseases that cause potentially fatal reactions in humans and requires much more stringent safety protocols within the lab. This can include the use of respirators to prevent airborne infection. Biological hazards in this group generally have known vaccines or treatments.
BSL 4 contains biological hazards that are potentially fatal to humans for which there is no known treatment or vaccine. Laboratory safety includes the use of full-body safety suits.Learn more about Biology
Chromosomes can be found in the nucleus of every plant and animal cell; these combinations of DNA and protein are essential components of genetic information. DNA is a long chain of genetic information that would not be able to fit inside a cell without the structural assistance of chromosomes, and this information helps determine a plant or animal's individual traits, including physical characteristics and behavioral capabilities. The DNA that is contained in chromosomes is passed from parents down to offspring.Full Answer >
All organisms belong to one of five kingdoms: animal, plant, moneran, fungi and protist. All living organisms fall into specific categories using taxonomy, which groups all living things into groups based on biological characteristics and traits. Taxonomy itself classifies as a distinct branch of science, classifying living creatures into general categories and more specific groups.Full Answer >
According to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, "metabolism" is defined as the chemical process a plant or an animal uses to create energy needed for survival. Metabolism is responsible for everything from digestion to breathing and muscle movement.Full Answer >
Because they are the energy-producing organelles in plant and animal cells, a high number of mitochondria implies that the cell requires a great deal of energy to perform its specific function. Skeletal muscle cells, for example, have a large number of mitochondria because they are required to respond quickly when they are needed to do mechanical work. Fat cells also contain many mitochondria because their function is to store energy for when it is required by the body.Full Answer >