The basic principle of atomic absorption spectrophotometry states that atoms absorb specific wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. Spectrophotometry is a technique used in measuring the quantity of light absorbed by a substance by determining the intensity of light transmitted by a chemical solution.
Spectrophotometry is a useful tool in quantitative analysis where the concentration of a substance is to be identified. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry assays the metal content in water. The molecules in the solution first undergo atomization to free the atoms from their bonds with other elements. The main components of an atomic absorption spectrophotomer include a light source, atomizer, monochrometer and a detector.