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What are the basic parts of the brain structure?

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Quick Answer

The basic parts of the brain structure are the forebrain, the midbrain and the hindbrain, according to Innerbody. The forebrain is made up of the cerebrum, the hypothalamus and the thalamus and the pineal gland. The cerebrum is the largest area of the brain and controls the higher brain functions.

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Full Answer

The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres which are joined by a band of fibers called the corpus callosum, says Innerbody. The hemispheres in turn are separated into four lobes. These are the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. There's also a lobe called the limbic lobe, which is found in the middle of the cerebrum.

The thalamus and the hypothalamus are found in a part of the forebrain called the diencephalon, states Innerbody. The midbrain connects the diencephalon and part of the brain called the medulla oblongata. The midbrain has areas that control the way the eyes move and other body parts.

The medulla oblongata is an extension of the spinal cord into the hindbrain, claims Innerbody. The nerves in the medulla control involuntary processes such as the heartbeat, breathing, muscle tone, blood flow and the movements of the gastrointestinal tract. The medulla has a network of nerves called the reticular system, which coordinates and regulates many brain functions. The hindbrain also holds structures called the pons and the cerebellum.

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